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Kuleshevich & Gorkovets, 2008

Mineralogy of the Precambrian Southern Kostomuksha Gold Prospect in Karelia

Kuleshevich, L. V., Gorkovets, V. Y.
AjakiriGeology of Ore Deposits
Tüüpartikkel ajakirjas


The southern Kostomuksha gold-sulfide prospect with a grade of 0.2–30 g/t Au belongs to the gold-pyrrhotite-arsenopyrite mineral type and is localized in the metasomatically altered shear zone at the southern flank of the Kostomuksha iron deposit. The Au-bearing pyrite ore is commonly characterized by a low grade (0.02–1.0 g/t Au). The grade of Au-bearing mineralization composed of arsenopyrite, loellingite, and electrum (4.28–15.31 wt % Ag and up to 0.99–2.16 wt % Hg) is higher; pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, galena, maldonite, aurostibite, and native bismuth are additional components of this mineral assemblage. The ore mineralization is hosted in the near-latitudinal shear zone close to the contact between the folded and metamorphosed banded iron formation (BIF) and hälleflinta. The early stage of collision-related HP-HT metamorphism resulted in the formation of a garnet-amphibole-biotite assemblage (T = 680-750°C) and microcline. After an abrupt drop m pressure, metasomatic alteration and ore mineralization took place. The ore-forming process started at 510–440°C with deposition of arsenopyrite. Galena and electrum were formed at a lower temperature. The temperature continued to decline down to the stage of ore oxidation and deposition of colloform marcasite. Ore minerals precipitated from acid chloride aqueous solutions admixed with methane at the initial stage and from diluted aqueous solutions at the final stage. The character of wall-rock alteration and the gain of K, Rb, and B show that the ore-forming process postdated the emplacement of potassium granite. The occurrence of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, and Ni and other heterogeneous elements indicates a complex metamorphic-metasomatic source and an additional supply of Au, As, Bi, Sb, and Te under conditions of sulfur deficiency. The gold mineralization at the southern Kostomuksha prospect is classified as gold-sulfide (arsenopyrite) ore type related to shear zones in the BIF.

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